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From: r...@AI.MIT.EDU (Richard Stallman)
Newsgroups: gnu.g++.help,comp.lang.c++
Subject: Latest draft of library license
Message-ID: <9101050609.AA28987@mole.ai.mit.edu>
Date: 5 Jan 91 06:09:29 GMT
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This is getting very close to completion, but I want to give it one
more round of user feedback.

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		  GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
		       Version 0.2, January 1991

 Copyright (C) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
                    675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

			    Preamble

  The license agreements of most software companies try to keep users
at the mercy of those companies.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.

  This license, the Library General Public License, applies to some
specially designated Free Software Foundation software, and to any
other libraries whose authors decide to use it.  You can use it for
your libraries, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software, that you
receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change
the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you
know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if
you distribute copies of the library, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis
or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you
have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must tell them their rights.  If you link a
program with the library, you must provide complete object files to
the recipients so that they can relink them with the library, after
making changes to the library and recompiling it.

  Our method of protecting your rights has two steps: (1) copyright
the library, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal
permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the library.

  Also, for each distributor's protection, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
library.  If the library is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original
version, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on
the original authors' reputations.

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  Most GNU software is covered by the ordinary GNU General Public
License, which was designed for utility programs.  This license, the
GNU Library General Public License, applies to certain designated
libraries.  This license is quite different from the ordinary one;
be sure to read it in full, and don't assume that anything in it is
the same as in the ordinary license.

  The reason we have a separate public license for libraries is that
they blur the distinction we usually make between modifying or adding
to a program and simply using it.  Linking a program with a library,
without changing the library, is in some sense simply using the
library, and is analogous to running a utility program or application
program.  However, in a textual and legal sense, the linked executable
is a combined work, a derivative of the original library, and the
ordinary General Public License treats it as such.

  Because of this blurred distinction, using the ordinary General
Public License for libraries did not effectively promote software
sharing, because most developers did not use the libraries.  We
concluded that weaker conditions might promote sharing better.

  However, unrestricted linking of non-free programs would deprive the
users of those programs of all benefit from the free status of the
libraries themselves.  This Library General Public License attempts to
permit developers of non-free programs to use free libraries, while
preserving your freedom as a user of such programs to change the
free libraries that are incorporated in them.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.  Pay close attention to the difference between a
"work based on the library" and a "work calling the library".  The
former contains code derived from the library, while the latter only
works together with the library.

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		  GNU LIBRARY GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
   TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

  0. This License Agreement applies to any software library which
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized
party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Library
General Public License (also called "this License").  Each licensee is
addressed as "you".

  A "software library" means a collection of software functions and/or
tables prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application
programs (which use some of those functions and tables) to form
executables.

  The "Library", below, refers to any such software library or work
which has been distributed under these terms.  A "work based on the
Library" means either the Library or any work containing the Library
or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications.

  "Source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for
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  1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Library's
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you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an
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  You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy,
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  2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Library or any portion
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    a) The modified work must itself be a software library.

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    charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.

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    d) If a facility in the modified Library refers to a function or a
    table of data to be supplied by an application program that uses
    the facility, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure
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    (For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has
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  Mere aggregation of another independent work with the Library (or
its derivative) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does
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  3. You may opt to apply the terms of the ordinary GNU General Public
License instead of this License to a given copy of the Library.  To do
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that they refer to the ordinary GNU General Public License, version 1,
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  Once this change is made in a given copy, it is irreversible for
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  This option is useful when you wish to copy part of the code of
the Library into a program that is not a library.

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  4. You may copy and distribute the Library (or a portion or
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  If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy
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  5. A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the
Library, but is designed to work with the Library by being compiled or
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work, in isolation, is not a derivative work of the Library, and
therefore falls outside the scope of this License.

  However, linking a "work that calls the Library" with the Library
creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library because it
contains portions of the Library.  The executable is therefore covered
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executables.

  When a "work that calls the Library" uses macros or inline functions
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  If such usage is limited to numerical parameters, data structure
layouts and accessors, and small macros and small inline functions,
then the object code may not in fact be a derivative of the Library.
If not, it is not covered by this License.  (Executables containing
this object code plus portions of the Library will still fall under
paragraph 6.)

  Otherwise, you may distribute the object code for the work under the
terms of Paragraph 6.  Any executables containing that work also fall
under Paragraph 6, whether or not they are linked directly with the
Library itself.

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  6. As an exception to the Paragraphs above, you may also compile or
link a "work that calls the Library" with the Library to produce a
work containing portions of the Library, and distribute that work
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  You must give notice with each copy of the work that the Library is
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    a) Accompany the work with the complete corresponding
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    changes were used in the work (which must be distributed under
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    b) Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at
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  For an executable, the required form of the "work that calls the
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  It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license
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use both them and the Library together in an executable that you
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  7. You may place the object code form of the Library (or a modified
version of the Library) in a single library together with other
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combined library, provided that the separate distribution of the
Library object code and of the other library facilities is otherwise
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    a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same
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    This must be distributed under the terms of the paragraphs above.

    b) Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact
    that part of it is derived from the Library, and explaining where
    to find the uncombined Library.

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  8. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, link with, distribute or
transfer the Library except as expressly provided under this License.
Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, distribute or
transfer the Library is void, and will automatically terminate your
rights to use the Library under this License.  However, parties who
have received copies, or rights to use copies, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.

  9. You are not required to accept this license, since you have not
signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to distribute
the Library or its derivative works.  These actions are prohibited by
law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by distributing the
Library (or any work based on the Library), you indicate your
acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions.

  10. Each time you redistribute the Library (or any work based on the
Library), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute, use or modify the Library
subject to these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.

  11. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy ALL your obligations, then as a
consequence you may not distribute the Library.  For example, any
patent license that would not permit royalty-free redistribution of
the Library by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly
through you contradicts this License and therefore would leave no
possible distribution terms not ruled out for one reason or another.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section is a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system which is
implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.

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  12. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
versions of this License from time to time.  Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Library
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and
"any later version", you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that version or of any later version published by
the Free Software Foundation.  If the Library does not specify a
license version number, you may choose any version ever published by
the Free Software Foundation.

  13. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these,
write to the author to ask for permission.  For software which is
copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free
Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.  Our
decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status
of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing
and reuse of software generally.

			    NO WARRANTY

  14. BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
WARRANTY FOR THE LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.
EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR
OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE LIBRARY "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
LIBRARY IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME
THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  15. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY
AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU
FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF
SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES.

		     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

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     Appendix A: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries

  If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, we recommend making it free software that
everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the library's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
    modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
    License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
    version 1, or (at your option) any later version.

    This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
    Library General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
    License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
    Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

  Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
  library `Frob' (a library for tweaking knobs) written by James Random Hacker.

  <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1990
  Ty Coon, President of Vice

That's all there is to it!

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