Apple Introduces Lisa™, a Revolutionary Personal Computer for the Office

Cupertino, Calif., January 19, 1983—Apple Computer, Inc. today announced the Lisa system, a new kind of personal computer aimed at revolutionizing the way work is done in office environments. Priced under $10,000, Lisa incorporates the latest software and hardware technology in a desktop system that's powerful and advanced, yet so easy to learn that a first-time user can begin putting it to work in less than 30 minutes

Lisa (Local Integrated Software Architecture) forges a new relationship between users and computers, allowing people to work in a more natural way without having to adopt rigid computer conventions or special languages. Lisa's screen displays simple pictures of documents, folders, and other familiar things in a typical office. A palm-sized device called a "mouse" is used to point to and manipulate these items, and to perform desired tasks.

Six integrated software applications for Lisa cover the core functions of today's office: spreadsheet analysis, word processing, business graphics, graphics design, personal filing, and project management. The user is able to view multiple applications and documents on the screen simultaneously, transferring information between them quickly and easily.

Development of Lisa began in 1979, as Apple sought to create a product that uniquely addressed the needs of individuals who work in offices. Over $50 million and more than 200 person-years of development effort have been dedicated to designing the system.

"Lisa embodies a radical change in how users work with computers," said John Couch, vice president and general manager of the Personal Office Systems Division. "Conventional computers created obstacles for those who wanted to make their jobs more efficient. We used progress in micro-technology, plus advances in software technology, to remove many of those obstacles and to make a computer that really is simple to use."

The Lisa Environment

Lisa fosters a more productive, efficient office environment by following the work habits of the individual. The result is a system that functions as a natural extension of its user.

Largely responsible for Lisa's ease of use are pictures on the screen of objects usually found on an office desktop, and the mouse, which moves the screen's pointer. The user controls the Lisa system intuitively by pointing at and selecting the symbol for a file folder, a memo pad, a wastebasket, or other familiar objects.

Once selected, an object is used just like its real-life counterpart. A file folder, for example, can be opened and the contents revealed; documents can be refiled, copied, taken out and changed, put in a new file, or thrown away.

The basic functions in all six of Lisa's integrated software applications operate in the same way. Thus, once a person has used one application, he can learn the others more quickly.

Transferring information from one application to another also is made easy with Lisa. For example, when writing a cost analysis report, the user can quickly shift from word processing to a spreadsheet model to perform the calculations. At that point the user may choose to "cut out" the spreadsheet and "paste" it into the report, or to transfer the spreadsheet information to a business graphics application and turn out presentation-quality graphs—all at the touch of a button.

Designed for the Office: Six Integrated Software Applications

Lisa's software applications are integrated business tools designed to streamline all the work of the office professional, from report writing and forecasting, to financial modeling, project management, and product design.

LisaCalc™ is an electronic spreadsheet for handling budgets, forecasts, and other row-and-column format models that help users plan better. Different assumptions about a forecast situation can be made, plugged in, and results calculated and displayed instantly. Using the mouse, LisaCalc models can be transferred into other programs in seconds.

LisaWrite™, a word processing program, lets the user generate any written text, from a short memo to a lengthy report. Inserting words, rewriting text, and other sophisticated editing functions can be done quickly and easily. With the mouse, the user can easily select bold, italic, and underlined text in any combination and in a variety of typestyles—all visible on screen. In addition, a user can print one document file simultaneously creating or editing others.

LisaGraph™ allows users to display spreadsheet data and a related graph—either bar, line, bar/line mixture, scatter graph, or pie dart—together on the screen. The program plots up to seven data sets on a single graph. Blocks of data transferred from LisaCalc to LisaGraph are plotted automatically. Graphs can be customized by cutting and pasting them into LisaDraw.

LisaDraw™ enables users to enhance reports and presentations with clear, easy-to-prepare graphics. Using the mouse and a "palette" of shapes that include lines, rectangles, circles, and freehand shapes, the user can draw organization and flow charts, technical diagrams, schematics, and other visual aids. Shapes can be moved, duplicated, reduced, and expanded automatically to meet the user's needs. Printouts reflect exactly what is on the screen.

LisaList™ is a data base application that searches, sorts, and extracts information quickly and easily. All types of files, from client lists and job candidate data, to competitive product information and other records, can be created and accessed with the program. Sensitive data can be suppressed for security. And columns can be added, deleted, expanded, narrowed, or repositioned at any time without reentering data.

LisaProject™ permits the management of complex projects, including deadlines, resources, and critical paths. One project milestone can be changed and its effect on other milestones will be seen immediately. Results can be printed out in various sizes, from wall charts to single-page reports. Reports are available in Schedule, Task, and Resource formats.

Development Tools

Lisa runs BASIC, Pascal, and COBOL high-level languages, allowing users and independent software vendors to augment Lisa's repertoire of applications with programs tailored to specific needs. A Lisa applications Development Toolkit, to be available later in 1983, will help users and software developers create additional integrated programs for Lisa.

In addition. Lisa will support other major operating systems, including the CP/M™ family, available from Digital Research, and Xenix™, available from Microsoft. Other independent software companies are already developing additional applications.

Lisa's High-Performance Hardware Architecture

Lisa is powered by the MC68000, a 32/16-bit microprocessor that has the capability to combine software, display, keyboard, mouse, and peripherals into the most versatile, easy-to-use system yet developed. The MC68000 features 32-bit internal architecture and a 16-bit external data path. Three other microprocessors control input/output functions, relieving the MC68000 of the additional processing overhead and allowing the system to achieve even higher levels of performance.

The system is configured with one megabyte of main memory and 1.7 megabytes (formatted) of built-in mass storage on two 5 1/4-inch floppy disk drives. These incorporate the Apple 871 disk drive, a high-density, double-sided mechanism which provides greater integrity of data, greater data capacity, and faster data transfer rate than conventional floppy disk drives. Apple's ProFile™, bundled with Lisa, is a self-contained, five-megabyte hard disk storage system. It allows Lisa's applications to be stored on one disk and gives the user the advantage of running all Lisa applications concurrently.

Lisa features a 12-inch, black and white, bit-mapped screen. This high resolution screen displays 364 lines of 720 dots each, letting the user create extraordinary graphics and up to 132 columns and 40 rows of sharp, clear text. Although the mouse replaces special function keys, the keyboard can be programmed for special character functions. Lisa is equipped with a typewriter-style keyboard with a numeric keypad. With a single keystroke, standard characters can be quickly shifted to mathematical symbols or foreign characters.

The system's three built-in interface ports—two serial and one parallel—let Lisa fill a multitude of roles. Using LisaTerminal™, a telecommunication software package being developed by Apple, Lisa functions as a teletype terminal, a DEC VT100 or DEC VT52 terminal, or an IBM-compatible terminal. When linked to AppleNet™, Apple's newly announced local area network, Lisa makes it possible for users to share peripherals and exchange information and files.

Interface to external peripherals is handled through either the parallel port or the two serial ports, one of which is equipped for modem interface. The parallel port is used to support the ProFile. Lisa also provides three additional expansion slots, each of which can support special interface boards.

Lisa's hardware components are organized into convenient plug-in modules. LisaTest™, a diagnostic software program, permits swift determination of any module failures; the plug-in modules allow equally rapid replacement.

Peripherals That Match Lisa's Capabilities

Using dot matrix and daisy wheel printers, Lisa produces printed materials with sharpness unmatched by any other similarly priced system.

Apple's Dot Matrix Printer reproduces everything—manuscripts, charts, pictures and designs—exactly as they appear on the screen, with quality equal to that of printers costing thousands of dollars more. Its high-resolution mode (160 by 144 dots-per-inch) supports proportional spacing of bold, italic and underlined type in 22 different typestyles. The printer's draft mode provides high speed printout of long lists and inventories at 120 characters per second.

Like the dot matrix printer, Apple's daisy-wheel printer produces exactly what is on the user's screen, including graphics. Appropriate for written material that requires letter quality, the printer uses a 130-spoke print wheel and new, multipitch and multifont print wheels. These let the user print a variety of text without changing print wheels. Lisa's daisy-wheel printer prints 45 characters per second.

For greater on-line storage, Lisa can be bolstered with additional five-megabyte ProFile hard disks. These mass storage systems feature faster access and data transfer than traditional floppy disk drives.

Communication Facilities

Using a plug-in modem, LisaTerminal software lets the user gain access to remote mainframe computers, and remote data bases such as CompuServe™, The Source™, and Dow Jones News Service™.

LisaTerminal lets Lisa emulate teletype DEC VT100 or VT52 terminals, providing communication with large DEC-compatible systems. Lisa can communicate with any IBM or IBM-compatible system that supports the 3270 bisynchronous protocols through a 3270BSC software package being developed by Apple.

Local Area Networks

Lisa also is designed to become a part of AppleNet, a low-cost local area network being developed by Apple. AppleNet links Lisas together—and to other Apple systems—allowing them to electronically transfer information and documents, and to share expensive peripherals such as mass storage systems and printers.

In addition to AppleNet, Apple plans to offer interface devices for other local area networks, including Xerox Corporation's Ethernet™. As with AppleNet, the interface will inter-connect all types of Apple computers—Apple II's, Apple III's, and Lisas.

Service And Support

Innovative self-teaching materials are available with the Lisa system. Included is a self-paced, computer-based tutorial program called LisaGuide™. In addition, a short tutorial at the beginning of each manual enables Lisa users to begin doing useful work in under 30 minutes. The materials are supplemented by easy-to-follow reference manuals. Self-instruction on conventional personal computers takes about 10 times as long.

Several flexible and economical service and support options are available to Lisa users, including Apple's toll-free number where a Lisa specialist will be able to answer questions on any part of the system. The same number will carry information on all software updates. As with other Apple products, AppleCare Carry-In Service is available. Or, users may prefer to take advantage of Apple's on-site service program, a joint effort between Apple and RCA. In addition, Apple can provide in-house training for large firms wishing to do their own maintenance.

Price And Availability

The Lisa system includes the computer with one megabyte of read/write memory and two built-in floppy disk drives, a five-megabyte ProFile, and the six integrated application programs. This system has a suggested retail price of $9995, and will be available from authorized Lisa dealers in the United States in spring 1983. LisaTerminal also will be available in spring 1983. Several foreign language versions of Lisa will be introduced worldwide in summer 1983. AppleNet, the Ethernet interface device, and the 3270 data communication package will be available in late 1983.

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