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From: mjohn...@Apple.COM (Mark B. Johnson)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.programmer,comp.sys.mac,
Subject: System 7.0 Disclosure (LONG)
Message-ID: <30351@apple.Apple.COM>
Date: 9 May 89 15:13:43 GMT
Organization: Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, CA
Lines: 455

System Software Directions Overview

On May 9, 1989, Apple will disclose future system software plans 
to third-party developers attending the annual World-Wide 
Developer's Conference.  The disclosures will cover the core 
technologies under development for inclusion in the next major 
Macintosh System Software release, System 7.0.

The purpose of the disclosure is to ensure that developers have 
the time and information necessary to capitalize on the new 
features and functionality of System 7.0.  By doing this, we 
believe that many new, more powerful applications will be 
available at the time System 7.0 is introduced.  We will also take 
this opportunity to hold an informal press seminar to begin 
educating the media on Macintosh System Software.

Below is an overview of the core feature set planned for System 
7.0.  While it's still too early in the development cycle to 
announce a customer availability plan or introduction date, we 
will begin seeding developers with code in the fall.  As we make 
further progress on System 7.0, we will provide additional 

System Software Release Strategy

In early 1989, Apple announced a new system software release 
strategy to accommodate the varying needs of current users, new 
customers and Macintosh developers.  We now break our system 
software into two release categories: Product Support Releases and 
Feature Releases.

Product Support Releases are developed to support a new CPU, 
peripheral or networking product.  Generally, these releases are 
for buyers of newly introduced products and should not concern 
current owners.

Feature releases are major enhancements to the system software 
foundation that we encourage all users to adopt.  They 
significantly enhance the capabilities of the Macintosh and add 
substantial value to the installed base.  System 7.0 will be a 
Feature release.

System 7.0 Goals

The primary goal of System 7.0 is to extend the user's reach.  
System 7.0 demonstrates Apple's commitment to add value to the 
installed base and to create new reasons to buy Macintosh.  The 
new System 7.0 features will extend the capabilities of the 
Macintosh using the consistent and intuitive techniques with which 
users are already familiar.

System 7.0 Core Technologies:

Virtual Memory and 32-Bit Addressing

Virtual Memory extends the user's available memory by 
transparently treating the hard disk as additional RAM.  This 
allows users to run more and larger applications with less RAM.  
Because Virtual Memory requires a memory management unit, it will 
only benefit 68030 Macintosh systems (SE/30, IIcx, IIx), and 68020 
systems with a PMMU (Macintosh II systems with optional 68851 

32 Bit addressing will allow Macintosh computers to access 4 
gigabytes of memory.  Combined with Virtual Memory, 32 Bit 
Addressing will enable customers to take full advantage of more 
sophisticated, memory intensive applications.

InterApplication Communication Architecture (IAC)

The IAC architecture is an integrated application-to-application 
communications framework that will allow applications to exchange 
data and instructions on a single Macintosh or over a network.

Outline Fonts

Outline Fonts will provide users with sharp text at any size on 
any Macintosh display, printer, fax modem or other graphics 
peripherals.  Further, leading type manufacturers have already 
announced that they will support Apple's technology; this means 
that users will be able to select from thousands of new typefaces 
in the future.

Layout Manager

The Layout Manager will provide typographic quality text layout 
for all applications.  The layout manager will allow any 
application to offer advanced text positioning features including 
kerning, ligatures and contextual forms.

New Print Architecture

The New Print Architecture will result in a wider variety of high-
quality printing devices for the Macintosh.  In addition, the New 
Print Architecture will provide background printing for all types 
of printers, improved color and halftone printing, and better user 
control over printing.

Database Access

Database Access will provide Macintosh applications with access to 
remote databases so that users can integrate host data into their 

New Finder

A new version of the Finder that will make system operation 
easier, more intuitive and more powerful.

Runs on all Macintosh Computers!

System 7.0 will run on all Macintosh systems from the Plus to the 
IIx.  It will however, require a minimum of 2 megabytes of RAM.  
Because System 7.0 will significantly increase the functionality 
and usability of all Macintosh computers, we will strongly 
encourage all customers to upgrade.  Apple will move the entire 
product line to System 7.0.

During the transition, Apple will continue to ship one megabyte 
configurations with System 6.0.  Apple expects to continue to 
offer an attractive low-end product with System 7.0.  Apple will 
provide technical support for both System 6.0 and System 7.0.

Applications Compatibility

System 7.0 is an upward compatible extension to Macintosh system 
software.  Applications that follow Apple's Inside Macintosh 
guidelines will continue to run under System 7.0.  By providing 
developers with early details concerning System 7.0, Apple expects 
a smooth transition to the new software.

What Should Users Do Now

Nothing!  System 7.0 will run on any Macintosh Plus, SE, SE/30, or 
Macintosh II family member.  In fact, because System 7.0 will 
offer substantially improved functionality, it will add 
significant value to the entire installed base.System 7.0 will be 
instrumental in extending the capabilities of the Macintoshand the 
reach of the user.


Concerning this announcement, the key messages are:

  *   Apple is disclosing information about the core technologies
      under development for inclusion in the next major Macintosh
      System Software release, System 7.0.  Apple is doing this to
      enable developers to take advantage of the System 7.0
      functionality as soon as System 7.0 is released.

  *   Later this year Apple will announce the complete System 7.0
      feature set and customer availability plans.  Developers
      will begin receiving seed software in the fall.

  *   System 7.0 demonstrates Apple's commitment to add value to
      the installed base and to create new reasons to buy
      Macintosh.  The new System 7.0 features will extend the
      capabilities of the Macintosh using the consistent and
      intuitive techniques with which users are already familiar.

Part II - Feature Notes

Outlined below are the core features under development for 
inclusion in System 7.0.  The Core  System 7.0 features are those 
which we have committed to including when System 7.0 is shipped.  
In addition to the Core features, there are several other 
technologies under development.  Apple will announce the complete 
System 7.0 feature set later this year.

Core System 7.0 Features

Virtual Memory

Virtual Memory allows users to extend available memory by treating 
their hard disk as a "virtual" extension to RAM.  This will allow 
users to run more and larger applications under MultiFinder with 
less RAM than would otherwise be required.

For example, running a word processor, presentation package, 
spreadsheet, drawing program and HyperCard might ordinarily 
require four megabytes, but this same set of applications could be 
run in two megabytes on a Macintosh with virtual memory.
To take advantage of Virtual Memory, customers must have a 
Macintosh computer with a memory management unit.  Currently, this 
includes the Macintosh SE/30, IIcx, IIx (the 68030 CPU has a built 
in memory management unit), and Macintosh II when equipped with 
the 68851 PMMU (currently available).

32-Bit Addressing

32-Bit Addressing allows Macintosh computers to extend their 
memory capacities beyond 8 megabytes to 128 MB of physical RAM and 
up to 4 Gigabytes of virtual address space. This will be 
particularly important to users of advanced graphics applications 
that use large color images, advanced sound applications, 
artificial intelligence programs and other software that is memory 

The combination of Virtual Memory, 32-Bit Addressing, and 
MultiFinder will enable Macintosh computers to support the memory 
necessary for users to run more applications and larger 

InterApplication Communications Architecture (IAC)

IAC Architecture will support four types of application-to-
application communication:  1) program-to-program communication - 
a low level tool used to send data between applications, 2) Live 
Copy/Paste - a mechanism which supports the dynamic linking of 
documents, 3) AppleEvents(TM) - a standard set of messages that 
applications can use to request actions of one another (e.g., 
"open document"), and 4) Clipboard Copy/Paste - supports the 
copy/cut/paste tools that are currently available.

Here are some examples of how these will benefit users:

* A user could "live paste" a chart into a word processing
  document and have changes in the chart automatically passed
  on to the word processing document.  This powerful
  feature allows the system to manage tedious updates for
  the user automatically.
* Groups of users sharing an AppleShare file server
  could cooperatively develop a presentation.  Each
  user would "live paste" his individual work into
  the master document so that the master always
  represents the current collaborative work.
* A telecommunications program multitasking in
  the background could, using AppleEvents(TM), send
  data from a remote host computer to a
  foreground database program or charting
  program.  This cooperation among applications
  allows users to get more out of the combination
  of applications than they could from the
  individual components.
* A user programming tool could allow users
  to create custom application command scripts
  that would automatically control other
  applications using AppleEvents(TM) as
  the communications vehicle.

Outline Fonts

Outline fonts are mathematical descriptions of text that can be 
scaled to any point size or resolution.  This will provide sharp 
type on all Macintosh displays, printers, fax modems, etc without 
having to install specific size bitmaps into the system.

This means that Macintosh applications will be able to use any 
type size that the user wants (not just the few found in typical 
Font menus).  In addition, Apple's outline fonts will be supported 
by all the major type manufacturers which means there will be 
thousands of type styles to choose from in the future.

Outline fonts will provide better WYSIWYG and will dramatically 
improve the quality and flexibility of non-PostScript printers 
like the LaserWriter IISC, ImageWriter and ImageWriter LQ.

Outline fonts will also make applications more flexible.  For 
example, a typical drawing program allows users to arbitrarily 
scale the size of a drawing.  Frequently though, imbedded type 
does not scale properly.  With outline fonts, users will be able 
to scale text as easily as the graphics which will allow users to 
create better documents.  Outline fonts will also allow 
applications to present more legible "print previews" and zoom-in 
or zoom-out functions.

Layout Manager

The Layout Manager will provide typographic quality text layout 
for all applications.  The layout manager will allow any 
application to offer advanced text positioning features including 
kerning, ligatures and contextual forms.

New Print Architecture

The new print architecture is designed to make it much easier to 
support output devices like printers, fax modems, film recorders, 
or plotters on the Macintosh.  The result will be higher quality 
output and a wider range of output device choices.

In addition, the new print software will provide background 
printing for all types of printers, improved color and halftone 
printing, and will allow applications software to control printers 
in more sophisticated ways.  The new software will provide 
applications with more flexibility such as the capability to print 
documents that include both landscape and portrait oriented pages.  
The new print architecture will require that users have new print 
drivers, but will allow users with System 6.0 and 7.0 to 
transparently share LaserWriter printers.

When System 7.0 ships, Apple will provide new print drivers for 
all Apple printers.  In addition, Apple will be working closely 
with third-parties to ensure that a full complement of drivers are 
available immediately.

Database Access

With the new Database Access capabilities, users will be able to 
integrate data from remote host computer databases into their 
Macintosh applications.  Apple's standard interface will allow 
applications developers to provide access to many different types 
of databases from many different vendors that may be running on 
many different types of computers.  This will give users maximum 
flexibility to access the data that they need.

The design of the database access facility will allow users to 
integrate host data using the "live" copy/paste capabilities also 
to be available with System 7.0.  Once the appropriate links are 
created by the database administrator, users with no knowledge of 
how to access the remote database will be able to use its data 
using the most familiar of Macintosh techniques.

With Database Access, users will not be limited to stand-alone or 
local area network databases as found in other systems.  Instead, 
Macintoshes will have standard access to local area and 
enterprise-wide databases that are central in larger computing 

New Finder

The Finder is the most visible piece of Macintosh System Software.  
All Macintosh users interact with the Finder to copy files, launch 
applications and to manage system resources.  The new Finder will 
provide users with more intuitive system management capabilities 
as well as additional power.  The new Finder will also be 
extensible so that functions like electronic mail and disk backup 
can be integrated into the intuitive desktop metaphor.

Highlights of the New Finder

* Integrated System Utilities like Font/DA Mover - Allows users to
  install fonts and desk accessories by dragging into the system
* Help on any desktop icon or menu item.
* Integrated Find - Locates and retrieves any file from any folder
  and brings that file to the front-most window.
* Aliases- Allows the creation of multiple icons for a single
  file.  This would allow documents to be filed in different
  folders.  For example, a budget spreadsheet for project ABC
  might be simultaneously filed in a "budget" folder and a project
  ABC folder.
* Stationery - Provides for the creation of custom document
  templates, such as a memo template or a newsletter layout
* Custom Views - Allows users to configure desktop windows to show
  standard or custom file displays.
* Configurable Apple Menu - Allows users to install any
  application, document or desk accessory into the Apple menu.
  This allows users to get at documents and applications as easily
  as they can access desk accessories with today's Finder.
* Extensible - New capabilities can be added in the future such as
  mail and backup.

Additional Software Under Development

File System Enhancements

System 7.0 will provide several new file system enhancements 
including a feature called the File System manager which 
developers will use to give users desktop access to alternative 
file systems like MS-DOS, OS/2, Unix, ProDos, etc.  By integrating 
these files into the desktop metaphor, users will be able to 
manipulate non-Macintosh files with the same intuitive techniques 
that they use on Macintosh files.

Other file system enhancements will allow applications to find and 
manage files faster and more flexibly.

New Sound Capabilities

System 7.0 will also provide capabilities that will make it easier 
for developers to use sound features.  These new capabilities 
include a standard MIDI manager to provide a standard means to 
communicate with electronic musical instruments.  In addition a 
new sound compression utility will reduce the amount of disk space 
for sound files.  A sound sequence manager will help multimedia 
applications to synchronize sounds with other activities like 

Communications Toolbox (Available Q3 1989 for System 6.0.3)

The Communications toolbox raises the standard capability for 
applications to communicate with other computers by modem, local 
or wide area networks.  The  toolbox provides a standard way for 
developers to support communications hardware as well as file 
transfer and terminal emulation capabilities.

32-Bit QuickDraw
(Ships separately in Q2, 1989 for use with System 6.0.3)

The new extended capabilities of QuickDraw will vastly enhance the 
color capabilities of the Macintosh.  With 32-Bit color, users 
will no longer be limited to 16 or 256 colors, but with new high-
performance graphics interface cards, users can see up to 16 
million colors simultaneously.  This capability, previously seen 
on only higher-end computers will provide users with photo-real 
image quality on their displays, color slide makers and projection 

International Utilities

At Apple, we believe that is important to have internationalized 
systems that can be customized to different languages and 
character sets.  Already, the Macintosh is the most international 
of personal computers.  The new utilities will make it easier for 
Macintosh to support other languages as well as it does English.

One-Button Installer

The One-Button Installer will make it easier for users to install 
new Macintosh System Software on their machines.  The new 
installer will provide for a one-button automatic installation for 
most users and a custom installation facility for more advanced 

System 7.0 will provide a broad range of new capabilities.  These 
capabilities will make users more productive and will enable the 
development of many new and innovative applications.
Mark B. Johnson                                            AppleLink: mjohnson
Developer Technical Support                         domain:
Apple Computer, Inc.         UUCP:  {amdahl,decwrl,sun,unisoft}!apple!mjohnson

"You gave your life to become the person you are right now.  Was it worth it?"
                                                         - Richard Bach, _One_

From: mjohnson@Apple.COM (Mark B. Johnson)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.programmer,comp.sys.mac,
Subject: System 7.0 Q & A
Message-ID: <30353@apple.Apple.COM>
Date: 9 May 89 15:22:31 GMT
Organization: Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, CA
Lines: 841

System Overview

Q:  Why is Apple talking about System 7.0?
A:  Apple is discussing with developers the core technologies under
    development for inclusion with the next major Macintosh System
    Software release, System 7.0.  Apple's goal in talking about
    System 7.0 is to shorten the amount of time necessary to bring a new 
    generation of powerful application software to Macintosh users.

Q:  Why is Apple telling the Press?
A:  Apple is informing the press to explain what we're working on in
    our labs, why we've chosen the paths that we have and how these
    technologies will affect users and developers.

Q:  What is Apple's message to users?
A:  System 7.0 will extend the user's reach through an expanded set
    of capabilities that utilize the same consistent, intuitive techniques
    that users already know.

Q:  What's in System 7.0?
A:  Although the complete feature set of System 7.0 will not be announced
    until later this year, the following projects will be a part of
    the release:
    * Virtual Memory/32-Bit Addressing
    * IAC Architecture
    * Outline fonts
    * New Print Architecture
    * Layout Manager
    * Database Access Manager
    * Finder 7.0

In addition, System 7.0 will integrate 32-Bit QuickDraw (introduced in April)
and the Communications Toolbox (shipping Q3).

Apple is also discussing with developers other projects currently
under development:

* Sound Manager Enhancements
* File System Enhancements
* International Text Support
* Installer 3.0

The complete feature set of System 7.0 will be announced later this year.

Q:  When will System 7.0 be made available to customers?
A:  Apple will announce customer availability later this year.

Q:  What Macintosh computers will be able to run System 7.0?
A:  System 7.0 is being designed to run on all Macintosh Plus, SE,
    SE/30, II, IICX and IIX computers.

System 7.0 will require two megabytes of RAM.

68030-equipped Macintosh computers and Macintosh II computers with PMMU will 
have the additional benefit of Virtual Memory.

Q:  Apple says that eventually all Macintosh computers will run System 7.0.
    Does that mean that all Macintosh computers will eventually be shipped
    with two megabytes of RAM?
A:  Not necessarily.  Apple is exploring various configurations of RAM,
    ROM, processor and hard disk that will support System 7.0.

Q:  What does that mean?
A:  The total amount of memory that a Macintosh uses for system software
    is a combination of RAM and ROM.  In general, when more software is put
    into ROM, a Macintosh requires less RAM.  In addition, for Macintosh
    computers with PMMUs, the hard disk can be used to extend RAM with
    virtual memory.  These technologies provide for many alternative
    configurations in the future. 

Q:  Is Apple announcing System 7.0?
A:  No.  Apple is making a directional statement to third-party
    developers about new technologies that will be included in a
    future version of Macintosh System Software.

Q:  What are Apple's plans for System 7.0?
A:  Apple will move the entire Macintosh product line to System 7.0.
    During this transition, Apple will offer both the System 6.0
    series and System 7.0 CPU configurations.

Q:  How many current applications will be compatible with System 7.0?
A:  Application software that conforms to the Inside Macintosh
    guidelines will be compatible with System 7.0.  As System 7.0 is
    still in development, it is impossible to determine which
    applications will be 100% compatible.  When System 7.0 ships,
    Apple plans to make a compatibility report publicly available.

Q:  What should customers do to prepare for System 7.0?
A:  There is nothing that users need to do now.  In making new
    purchase decisions, customers should buy the Macintosh configuration
    that suits their current needs.  Users and businesses that need to
    make long range decisions now may want to purchases machines with two
    megabytes or more of RAM today.

Q:  Why will System 7.0 need two megabytes of RAM?
A:  The new features of System 7.0 will require more memory than is
    available in a one megabyte system to operate effectively.

Q:  Where is the multitasking Macintosh Operating System?
A:  The Macintosh operating system has been multitasking since the
    introduction of MultiFinder.  Many applications take full advantage
    of MultiFinder by allowing concurrent printing, recalculating
    spreadsheets, sorting databases, and downloading files.

Q:  Isn't Apple now putting Macintosh users through an OS/2 experience?
A:  Absolutely not.  System 7.0 is an extension of today's Macintosh
    System Software.  Apple is designing System 7.0 to provide for
    upwardly compatible applications which is a fundamental part of
    the Macintosh System Software strategy.  System 7.0 will allow
    developers to create even more innovative Macintosh software
    and hardware that extends the power of today's Macintosh.

Q:  Can a Macintosh II-class machine running Apple's Virtual Memory
    operate with 1 megabyte of physical RAM?
A:  While this configuration may work, Apple will recommend 2
    megabytes of RAM when running System 7.0.

Q:  I own a Macintosh II computer with one megabyte of RAM and
    I want to upgrade to System 7.0.  Should I buy more RAM or an MMU?
A:  RAM.  The least expensive way to upgrade a one megabyte
    Macintosh II to System 7.0 is to add another megabyte of RAM.

Q:  Does Apple have plans to add new capabilities to the
    System 6.0 series?
A:  No.  Users of the System 6.0 series can continue to
    use their systems.  The upgrade path for System 6.0 series
    users is System 7.0 with more RAM.

Q:  Why not?
A:  Apple believes in providing consistency across our products
    for our users and developers.  This consistency can only be
    achieved by focusing on one system software platform.
    That platform is System 7.0.

Q:  Does this mean that all users need to upgrade to System 7.0?
A:  No, users can continue to use the System 6.0 series and their
    current applications.  System 7.0 and new applications software
    will provide many new capabilities that many users will want.
    System 7.0 offers users an opportunity to add more functionality to the 
    Macintosh computers they own today.

Core Technologies for System 7.0

Virtual Memory

Q:  What is Virtual Memory?
A:  Virtual Memory (VM) extends the user's available memory by
    transparently treating the hard disk as additional RAM.

Q:  Why is Virtual Memory important?
A:  Virtual Memory allows users to run more applications at
    once and work with larger amounts of data than they can today.

Q:  Will Virtual Memory be compatible with application software?
A:  Yes.  Virtual Memory is backward compatible with all
    applications that adhere to Inside Macintosh.

Q:  Which Macintosh computers can use Virtual Memory?
A:  Macintosh IIx, IIcx, and SE/30 are ready to use Virtual
    Memory--no additional hardware is needed.  Macintosh II can
    take advantage of Virtual Memory by adding the 68851 PMMU 
    coprocessor onto the Macintosh II logic board (a socket is
    provided on the board for this chip).  This coprocessor chip
    is on the Apple price list.  This is the same co-processor 
    needed to run A/UX, Apple's version of AT&T's UNIX operating system.

    Apple's 68000-based systems--Macintosh Plus and Macintosh SE--cannot
    take advantage of the Virtual Memory capability of System 7.0.
    Macintosh SE owners have the option of the Macintosh SE/30 logic
    board upgrade to gain Virtual Memory capabilities.

Q:  Why can't Macintosh Plus and Macintosh SE use Virtual Memory?
A:  The 68000 microprocessor used in the Macintosh Plus and
    Macintosh SE does not have the memory management hardware
    necessary for Virtual Memory.  This memory management
    capability is one of the primary differences between the 68000 and its 
    successor chips.

32-Bit Addressing

Q:  What is 32-Bit Addressing?
A:  32-Bit Addressing enables the Macintosh to use up to 4
    gigabytes of memory.  The basic software and hardware of the
    Macintosh already supports  the 32-Bit Addressing model.  
    However, Macintosh currently is limited to 8 megabytes of
    memory because 32-Bit Addressing is not yet fully implemented
    throughout the system.

Q:  Why is 32-Bit Addressing important?
A:  Macintosh users want more memory for a variety of uses.
    Some just want to run more applications under MultiFinder.
    Some want to use graphics software that creates multimegabyte
    images.  Some want to use enormous databases.  And some want to 
    manipulate even larger word processing documents.  More memory
    has endless uses.

Q:  So does the transition to 32-Bit Addressing mean lots of
    application incompatibility?
A:  No.  Applications that conform with 32-Bit Addressing
    guidelines ("32-Bit Clean") already run on all Macintosh
    computers. These applications will immediately benefit from the 
    enlarged memory space with System 7.0.   Applications that are
    not 32-Bit Clean will continue to run under System 7.0 but will
    not have the benefit of additional memory space.  Apple has been
    working with its third-party developers to make sure that all 
    application software abides by 32-Bit Cleanliness rules.

Q:  What Exactly is "32-Bit Clean"?
A:  Applications that follow Apple's memory manager guidelines
    in Inside Macintosh are 32-Bit Clean.  32-Bit Clean applications
    are both upwards and downwards compatible with 24-Bit and 32-Bit
    Addressing modes.  These guidelines are repeated in Technical Note #212 
    "The Joy of Being 32-Bit Clean."

Q:  What if my existing software is not 32-Bit Clean?
A:  Applications that are not 32-Bit Clean continue to run with System 7.0.

Q:  Will 32-Bit Addressing become standard?
A:  Yes.  At some point in the future, Apple will make 32-Bit
    Addressing standard on new Macintosh computers.

Q:  Since much of system software is in ROM, will I need a new
    ROM to get the benefits of 32-Bit Addressing?
A:  Apple is researching ways of offering 32-Bit Addressing
    to all Macintosh II computers.  While an optional ROM upgrade
    is not out of the question, other alternatives are being 
    considered.  Apple will keep developers and customers updated
    on issues relating to 32-Bit Addressing.

Q:  What does 32-Bit Addressing mean for Macintosh Plus
    and Macintosh SE?
A:  These Macintosh computers cannot get the benefit of 32-Bit
    Addressing.  32-Bit Clean and non-32-Bit Clean applications
    will continue to run on these computers.  Only Macintosh 
    computers using the 68020 or 68030 microprocessor can have
    the benefit of 32-Bit Addressing.

Interapplication Communication Architecture

Q:  What is Interapplication Communication Architecture?
A:  Interapplication Communication Architecture (IAC) is a
    framework for applications to exchange commands and data,
    both locally and over networks.  IAC consists of several pieces:

    * Program-To-Program Communications (PPC)Qa low-level tool
      for exchanging data between two programs, either locally
      or across networks.  PPC provides a unified, consistent
      programming interface for both local and network communication.
      PPC will be able to deliver messages either Immediate (IPC)
      or Store-and-Forward.
    * Event Manager PPCQa high-level tool for applications to
      exchange commands and data.  Event Manager PPC presents a
      simple, natural interface to applications.

    * AppleEvents(TM)Qan Apple-defined protocol of standard messages
      that Applications can send to other applications.  Examples
      include "Open Document," "Print," "MoveWindow."

    * Live Copy/Paste and Link ManagerQLive Copy/Paste gives you
      live links between documents.  For example, the user can
      link a spreadsheet table into a word processing document;
      whenever the spreadsheet changes, the word processing document is 
      automatically updated.

    * Clipboard Copy/PasteQa current capability of Macintosh and
      is also part of IAC.  Macintosh applications universally
      support copy and paste between applications via the Clipboard.

Q:  What does Live Copy/Paste offer the user?
A:  As applications begin to offer Live Copy/Paste, users will
    be able to make applications work better together and avoid
    repetitive copy and paste.  Users can build up libraries of 
    commonly used objectsQlike graphics or paragraphs of textQand
    link them into their documents.  When you need to changethe data,
    you change every occurrence of that data.  And, because Live
    Copy/Paste works with AppleShare(R) file servers, you can 
    easily share data with another person. Imagine linking in the
    sales numbers from each of your sales people's spreadsheets.
    Your master spreadsheet is always up-to-date.

Q:  Does Live Copy/Paste work with existing applications?
A:  No.  Applications must be revised to take advantage of
    Live Copy/Paste.  Apple is simplifying the task by providing
    extensive user interface guidelines and toolbox support 
    for Live Copy/Paste.

Apple's outline fonts

Q:  What are outline fonts?
A:  Outline fonts are mathematical descriptions of characters.
    Sharp text at any size on any device can be generated from
    outline fonts.  Today, the fonts in your Macintosh are called 
    "bitmap" fonts.  These fonts are small collections of pixels
    that create the text you see on the screen.  With bitmap fonts
    the System File can become huge and still not have all the 
    fonts in all the sizes you might want.

    The new Apple fonts are outline fonts.

Q:  What are the benefits of outline fonts?
A:  Outline fonts provide sharp text at any size on any device.
    This means beautiful documents on the screen for multimedia
    presentations as well as on the page from any printer.  Outline fonts
    also simplify the customer experience by creating a single font 
    standard for the Macintosh computer.

Q:  This is confusing.  I thought my Macintosh "Style" menu
    already had a function for outline fonts.
A:  It does, but that is something different.  The "Outline"
    option in the Style menu actually traces 
    the character to give it an outlined appearance.  It looks like
    this.  It is simply a graphics trick.  However, the new Apple
    fonts are called outline fonts because they are based on mathematical
    outlines, not bitmaps.  These outline fonts are also called spline 
    fonts or scalable fonts.  If you really want to get carried away,
    keep in mind that you will be able to "Outline" the outline fonts!

Q:  Do Macintosh owners need to buy PostScript fonts anymore?
A:  Macintosh owners may want to buy PostScript fonts that
    are not yet available in Apple's format.  It is important to
    remember that today's PostScript fonts, like all of the existing 
    Macintosh font technology, will still operate normally in the future.
    For example, PostScript fonts and bitmaps will remain popular on
    1MB Macintosh computers like the Plus and SE.  PostScript fonts
    may also remain useful in multivendor environments.  We expect some
    vendors will continue to offer their typefaces in PostScript format
    and add the Apple format version of that typeface.  However,
    the Apple font format will be all most Macintosh owners really need.

Q:  How many fonts will be available in the Apple format?
A:  Hundreds of fonts will be available within a few months of
    first shipment, and thousands soon after.  It is impossible to
    answer this question precisely.  There are two main reasons for
    this.  First, since Apple's format was designed to be very flexible,
    many vendors will be able to automate the conversion of their
    existing library to the Apple format.  Second, the open format
    is available to anyone, so even small players will be 
    able to create new typefaces.  Apple does not have to get
    involved in licensing or support.  Since there are hundreds
    of specialized fonts now available in bitmap formats, these are 
    all candidates for conversion to outline.

Q:  Will Apple be providing fonts in the new format?  If so, how many?
A:  Apple does not intend to be in the font business, so we will
    offer a core set of fonts and then stop.  This promotes a healthy
    aftermarket for type vendors.  The Apple core set will consist
    roughly of the fonts Apple ships today with Macintosh computers and 
    LaserWriter printers, plus a small number of additions.  The final
    list will be announced later.

Q:  Who really needs this technology?  After all, LaserWriter NT
    and NTX users already enjoy scalable type. Why put it into the Macintosh?
A:  Today, the benefits of outline fonts are available from
    Apple only through these two LaserWriter models.  Now, outline
    fonts will enhance the screen display, the ImageWriter II,
    the AppleFax Modem, the ImageWriter LQ and the LaserWriter IISC.  A 
    wide range of third-party output devices will also use these
    fonts for best possible text quality.

Q:  Does this mean that future Apple printers will not support PostScript?
A:  No.  Keep in mind that the existing Apple printer line
    consists of both "intelligent" and "passive" printers.  Where we
    put the processing power is generally a price/performance decision.
    Consequently, future Apple printers will support the new Apple font
    format in a variety of ways.  Apple is committed to maintaining
    excellent system support for PostScript printing.  However, our
    policy is to not comment specifically on hardware products
    under development.

Q:  Does this mean that Apple won't be using Display PostScript?
A:  Yes.  But this should come as no surprise.  Apple announced
    over a year ago that we will be improving the internal software
    of the Macintosh instead of adopting an outside language.  This
    removes limits from what Apple can do in software while maintaining
    excellent backward compatibility.  This new font format, like
    32-Bit QuickDraw, demonstrates both of these benefits.  At the same
    time, we are committed to maintaining an excellent interface
    to PostScript printers.  

New Print Architecture

Q:  What is New Print Architecture?
A:  The New Print Architecture is designed to extend the printing
    capabilities of Macintosh.

Q:  What are the advantages of the the New Print Architecture?
A:  There are three advantages to the New Print Architecture:

    1.  New features.  Background printing on all printers, increased
        performance, support for outline fonts, color/gray scale support,
        elimination of document reformatting, and an enhanced user interface
        will extend the lead the Macintosh has in printing. 

    2.  A wide variety of new printing devices.   Where in the past
        it has taken years to support new printers on the Macintosh,
        with the New Print Architecture it takes only a few months.
        We expect to have more well integrated printers available 
        on Macintosh than any other computer.

    3.  Compatible expansion for the future.  Expandability is
        designed into the new print architecture.  With the New Print
        Architecture we expect to be able to transparently offer 
        new features to both the user and application.

Q:  How does the New Print Architecture compare to printing in
    Presentation Manager?
A:  So far there are very few drivers for Presentation Manager.
    With Presentation Manager, Microsoft is writing application
    independent drivers for the first time.  Apple has utilized 
    four years of experience to develop a new print architecture
    that utilizes outline fonts, the Line Layout Manger, 32-Bit QuickDraw,
    and other system utilities.  With the New Print Architecture
    the Macintosh will remain the benchmark printing platform.

Q:  Is it true that all of the current printer drivers will
    be incompatible with System 7.0?
A:  Yes.  Apple's New Print Architecture is designed to
    make the creation of printer drivers easy.

    When System 7.0 ships, Apple will have new printer
    drivers to support all Apple output devices.

Q:  Who will write replacement drivers for these devices?
A:  Apple will work closely with third-party developers to
    help in the creation of new printer drivers built around Apple's
    New Print Architecture.

Line Layout Manager

Q:  What is the  Layout Manager?
A:  The Layout Manager allows applications to display typographical
    quality text.

Q:  What are the benefits of using the Layout Manager?
A:  Using the Layout Manager, applications can display sophisticated
    formats like kerning, ligatures and justification for any text.
    For international text systems, like Japanese or Arabic, the Layout
    Manager has additional support for composed characters.

Database Access Manager

Q:  What is the Database Access Manager?
A:  The Database Access Manager is the Macintosh System interface
    that allows  applications to transparently connect to remote
    databases on host computers.

Q:  What benefits does this Database Access Manager give to developers?
A:  The main benefit is that  applications like spreadsheets, desktop
    publishing, or graphics programs can now directly access host data
    in a standard way regardless of the host computer and database.

Q:  How does Apple's approach compare to IBM's OS/2 Extended Edition
    or Microsoft's SQL Server products?
A:  The Apple Data Access Manager provides standard access to
    remote host databases.  This is where the bulk of computerized
    data is found.  In contrast, the IBM product is only a local
    database that resides on a single user's machine.  The Microsoft
    product is a local area network database requiring a dedicated
    computer.  Both the IBM and Microsoft database extensions are
    optional.  The Data Access Manager is a standard part of 
    Macintosh System Software.

Q:  What databases does the Database Access Manager support ?
A:  ORACLE, Sybase, Ingres, Informix, RDB, Vax-RMS and IBM systems.
    Many other databases will be supported in the future.

Finder 7.0

Q:  What's new about Finder 7.0?
A:  Finder 7.0 improves the Macintosh user interface in three
    important ways.  First, Finder 7.0 will integrate system functions
    that previously had different user interfaces into one consistent,
    intuitive interface.  Second, we are building in new powerful
    features like a quick-find facility, document stationery
    templates, aliases that will allow users to organize their
    files in multiple ways, and others.  Third, Finder 7.0 will
    be extensible providing for the integration of new capabilities
    like electronic mail and backup in the future.

Q:  Will desk accessories continue to run with Finder 7.0?
A:  Yes they will.  In addition, because applications can now be
    installed in the Apple menu like desk accessories, developers
    will be able to provide users with better desk accessories.  These 
    new desk accessories will have all the power of applications with
    the instant-access features of the original desk accessories.

Q:  What's the relationship of Finder to MultiFinder?
A:  MultiFinder is a set of operating system capabilities
    that give the Macintosh the capability to run multiple applications
    concurrently (multitasking).  The Finder is the system utility 
    software that gives Macintosh users control over their desktop.
    The Finder is what you use whenever you launch (double-click)
    an application, drag a file onto your hard disk, move folders
    between windows, etc.

Q:  How does the Finder compare to Presentation Manager or Windows?
A:  Neither PM or Windows has a Finder.  With these systems,
    the user sees a graphic display but does not get the intuitive,
    direct control over system functions that the Macintosh provides.
    For example, in the Macintosh, a user can copy a file from one
    disk to another by merely dragging it.  In Windows or Presentation
    Manager, file copy requires the user to type cryptic file names
    into a dialog box and then the system does the copy.  This 
    forces users to remember file names exactly and to remember
    arcane name formatting restrictions.

Q:  I have a large number of files on high-capacity hard disks.
    Will the Finder 7.0 do anything to help manage files better?
A:  Finder 7.0 takes advantage of a new system feature called
    the Desktop Manager which can handle many more files more quickly.
    In addition, the quick-find facility will allow users to access
    files more quickly by automatically finding the folder a file
    is stored in, opening it on the desktop, and highlighting the
    file that the user seeks.  


System Software Explorations

Sound Manager Enhancements

Q:  What are the improved audio capabilities?
A:  The audio improvements represent new functionality in the Sound
    Manager including:
    * a real-time sequencer
    * multiple channels of simultaneous sound
    * audio compression/expansion
    * integration of MIDI management tools

Q:  Why are these improvements so important?
A:  The sound enhancements provide the foundation for more and
    better audio in current applications as well as a whole new range 
    of applications with integrated audio capabilities.  

File System Enhancements

Q:  What's new in the Macintosh File System for system release 7.0?
A:  Five enhancementsQFileIDs, Catalog Search, Desktop Manager,
    File System Manager and B*tree ManagerQwill make the Macintosh
    work smarter for users.

Q:  Why are the File System Enhancements important?
A:  As applications take advantage of System 7.0 features,
    customers will have greater ability to organize their hard
    disks and manage those drives more effectively.  Applications will be 
    able to locate documents much more quickly and under a wide range
    of search criteria.

Q:  How does the Desktop Manager improve performance of
    large disks?
A:  Currently, desktop information (file icons and comments)
    is stored in an invisible Desktop file.  Because of the current
    implementation, there is a limit of approximately 2,000 
    entries in the desktop file and, more importantly, performance
    becomes sluggish long before the maximum number of entries
    is reached.  The new Desktop implementation 
    removes this size restriction and greatly improves
    performance in all cases.

Installer 3.0

Q:  What is the "one button Installer"?
A:  The "one button Installer" is actually version 3.0 of
    Apple's installation program.  Installer 3.0 offers "one button"
    solution to installing system software on Macintosh personal 
    computers.  Installer 3.0 also offers complete control of the
    installation process to those users who want to customize their


Q:  Is MultiFinder a multitasking operating system?
A:  Yes.  MultiFinder shares the CPU's time among a number of
    applications so that a customer can work on a word processing
    document while downloading a file or recalculating a spreadsheet.
    In technical terms, multitasking is the ability to perform a
    number of tasks concurrently.  MultiFinder uses a cooperative
    scheduling algorithm to run several applications concurrently.

Q:  Will there continue to be a distinction between MultiFinder
    and single Finder?
A:  No.  In System 7.0, MultiFinder will always be turned on.

Q:  Why will MultiFinder always be on in System 7.0?
A:  Many parts of System 7.0 depend on the functionality of
    MultiFinder.  As a result, MultiFinder will always be turned on.

Q:  What is pre-emptive scheduling?
A:  Pre-emptive scheduling is a method of allocating CPU time
    among several applications that involves temporarily interrupting
    each application in turn when that application has used 
    up its available time.

Q:  Why doesn't MultiFinder offer pre-emptive scheduling?
A:  Apple choose to focus on other features that we feel
    are more important.  Apple is looking at offering pre-emptive
    scheduling in future releases of Macintosh System Software.


Q:  Will HyperCard support System 7.0 features?
A:  Future releases of HyperCard will support System 7.0.  While
    some features are transparently supported, others will necessitate
    additional development.  For instance, HyperCard will need to
    be extended to take advantage of the high-level SQL calls 
    included in System 7.0.  Likewise, support for other features
    in the Live Copy/Paste will mean adding additional code.  Other
    features, like resolution-independent graphics and 
    Apple's outline fonts, are transparent to HyperCard and
    will need no additional work.

Macintosh Communication Toolbox 

Q:  What is the Communications Toolbox?
A:  The Communications Toolbox is a powerful facility that
    gives the Macintosh a fundamental capability to communicate
    with remote computers, providing users and applications with 
    consistent and extensible access to terminal emulation, data
    connection, and file transfer functions.

Q:  Why has Apple developed the Communications Toolbox?
A:  Apple is extending the consistency and modularity that
    characterize the user-interface Toolbox to the communications
    environment.  With the Macintosh Communications Toolbox, 
    Macintosh sets a new standard in empowering users and developers
    to take advantage of communications.  

Q:  When will it be available?
A:  The Macintosh Communications Toolbox will be released
    to developers during the third quarter of 1989.  The
    Communications Toolbox will become standard system software 
    when released as part of System 7.0.

Q:  How will users get the Communications Toolbox?
A:  Apple is encouraging the third-party developers who
    incorporate the Communications Toolbox into their applications
    to bundle the Communications Toolbox with their application.

32-Bit QuickDraw and LaserWriter 6.0

Q:  What is 32-Bit QuickDraw?
A:  QuickDraw is the graphics system software, given away
    in every Macintosh, that is responsible for putting objects,
    icons, text, and pictures on the Macintosh display.  On 
    68000-based machines, it supports 8 colors.  Until recently,
    on 68020/030 Macintosh computers, QuickDraw supported up to
    256 colors.  Today, extensions to QuickDraw, called "32-Bit
    QuickDraw," allow QuickDraw to work with the entire range of
    visible color, over 16 million colors.  There is no longer
    any color limitation on color Macintosh computers.

Q:  How will the product be distributed?
A:  Developers can license 32-Bit QuickDraw and System 6.0.3
    from Apple for shipment with their products. In addition,
    32-Bit QuickDraw will be distributed to all dealers, user 
    groups and bulletin boards typically receiving Apple System
    Software.  32-Bit QuickDraw will be incorporated into System 7.0.

Q:  What markets would want 32-Bit QuickDraw?
A:  32-Bit QuickDraw is especially useful in markets
    demanding high-quality color.  In publishing and video,
    full color is useful for showing realistic images from natural 
    sources.  For presentations, it is helpful for producing
    the continuous tone "ramps" from one color to another that
    are used in slides.  Finally, 24-bits of color make continuous 
    data easier to visualize for many scientific applications.
    As an enabling technology, image visualization can be expected
    to open many other new markets.

Q:  What are 16-bit, 24-bit and 32-bit color?
A:  16 bits of color can produce very life-like images, 24
    bits per pixel is known as "full color" because with 16
    million colors available, the eye loses its ability to
    distinguish between color incrementally.  The additional 8
    bits of color that differentiate 24-bit color from 32-bit
    color are usually used to store non-color information about
    the pixel; for example, one of the bits could be used for
    "transparency" information to allow a level of the 
    background to "show through" the color of a pixel.  This is
    known as an "alpha" byte.

Q:  What is LaserWriter 6.0?
A:  LaserWriter 6.0 is a new release of Apple's LaserWriter
    driver.  Nearly all Macintosh applications use Apple's
    graphics system software, QuickDraw, to draw on and off the 
    screen.  The LaserWriter driver translates QuickDraw
    instructions into PostScript commands, allowing PostScript
    printers (like Apple's LaserWriter printers) to reproduce 
    what the user sees on the screen at high resolution.

Q:  What's new about LaserWriter 6.0?  How is it different
    from the LaserWriter 5.2 driver that now ships with
    LaserWriter printers and System Software?
A:  Color printing.  LaserWriter 6.0 adds the capability
    to translate color QuickDraw images into color PostScript commands.
    Any application that supports color QuickDraw now also 
    supports color printing on color PostScript printers.
    Previously, unless an application sent color PostScript directly
    to the printer, color printing was not possible on these 

    Halftone printing. Users of monochrome PostScript printers
    benefit as well.  Color images are halftoned by the printer.
    Halftoning is a technique that produces dot clusters 
    of varying size that are perceived as different shades of gray.
    The resulting print is much more faithful to the original
    image than a high-contrast print composed only of solid black 
    and white regions.

    Faster text printing. The font query mechanism has been
    improved substantially in LaserWriter 6.0.  It takes less
    time for the printer to report its available fonts to the 
    Macintosh.  The result is reduced overall time-to-print,
    especially for users who have large font library hard disks
    connected to their printer.

    32-Bit QuickDraw printing. LaserWriter 6.0 supports output
    of images created using 32-Bit QuickDraw.  A print of a
    32-bit image will show smoother color transitions; in 
    general, rendering will be more accurate and realistic
    than an 8-bit image print.

    Extensible menu for page-size choices. The Page Setup
    dialog of LaserWriter 6.0 includes the page size choices
    US Letter, US Legal, A4 Letter, and B5 Letter.  It replaces 
    the Tabloid choice of previous drivers with an "Other" button.
    Clicking this button causes a pop-up menu to appear,
    offering the page sizesTabloid, No. 10 Envelope, and 
    A3.  Additional page sizes can be added to this menu by
    installing the proper resource.  Thus, printer vendors can
    ship a driver with their product that includes a page size 
    specially created for that device.  Current color printers
    have smaller printable areas than the LaserWriter, and thus
    some parts of full-page images are lost when printed on these 
    devices.  Users can now avoid this by selecting a page
    size appropriate for their printers.

Q:  Will all applications work with LaserWriter 6.0?
A:  Apple's testing indicates that most applications will
    work fine with LaserWriter 6.0.  Most applications use
    QuickDraw for printing as well as for screen imaging; these
    applications rarely have problems with LaserWriter 6.0.

    Other applications do their own conversion of a screen
    image to a PostScript page description, and send this
    PostScript directly to the printer (bypassing most of the 
    LaserWriter driver).  Some of these applications will not
    print as expected with LaserWriter 6.0.  There are several
    possible effects:

    1.  Output of a color image is in black and white,
        even on a color printer.Many applications that send
        their own PostScript to the printer do not send any of the 
        PostScript required for color printing.  It is difficult
        for an application to determine whether the printer
        is color or not.  The options are A) ask the user, or
        B) assume a black and white printer.  Most applications
        do the latter.

    2.  No output.
        A few applications that send their own PostScript rely
        on certain variables in the Laser Prep code that is
        a part of the LaserWriter driver.  Apple has discouraged
        this practice, but not with 100% success.  The Laser
        Prep code has changed in LaserWriter 6.0.  Applications
        that assume that certain variables are defined will
        generate PostScript errors when the user tries to print;
        nothing will be printed.  The work-around for this is to use 
        LaserWriter 5.2 until the developer revises the application.

    3.  Other problems when printing.
        Some problems may occur when printing using
        "Color/Grayscale" mode, but not with "Black & White" mode.
        This is because a few applications assume they will be printing 
        in black and white.  They try to write directly to data
        structures that changed when the color capability was
        added to the driver.  The work around for this is to use
        "Black & White" mode when printing until the developer
        revises the application.

Q:  In the past, new LaserWriter drivers were incompatible
    with older drivers.  Is this still the case?
A:  Yes.  LaserWriter 6.0 is not compatible with LaserWriter 5.2.
    LaserWriter "wars" can be avoided by ensuring that all users
    on a network who share printers have the same version 
    of the driver installed.

Q:  Should every user change to LaserWriter 6.0?
A:  No.  Those users who meet one of the following
    criteria, should use LaserWriter 6.0:

    1. Use a color Macintosh (IICX, II, IIX, or SE/30) and
       print documents containing color (or grayscale)
    2. Use a printer with an attached font library disk
       (i.e. have several hundred fonts available)
    3. Share a printer, via a network, with any other user
       who uses LaserWriter 6.0

Q:  How do I get LaserWriter 6.0?
A:  LaserWriter 6.0 will be part of Apple's color disk that
    will also include 32-Bit QuickDraw.  This disk will be
    distributed to all Apple authorized dealers.  The driver
    will also be distributed to electronic bulletin boards,
    user groups, APDA, VAR reps, Apple System Engineers, and
    reps for National and University Accounts.

    LaserWriter 6.0 will be available for licensing to vendors
    of color PostScript printers and other third-party developers.

Q:  Will LaserWriter 6.0 be included with system software
    or LaserWriter II printers?
A:  No. LaserWriter 5.2 will continue to ship with both
    system software and LaserWriter II printers.  When a new
    Macintosh is added to an existing network whose users have 
    LaserWriter 5.2, it will be fully compatible.  The network
    will need to update to LaserWriter 6.0 only if one or more
    users desire its color and font-handling features.
Mark B. Johnson                                            AppleLink: mjohnson
Developer Technical Support                         domain:
Apple Computer, Inc.         UUCP:  {amdahl,decwrl,sun,unisoft}!apple!mjohnson

"You gave your life to become the person you are right now.  Was it worth it?"
                                                         - Richard Bach, _One_

			        About USENET

USENET (Users’ Network) was a bulletin board shared among many computer
systems around the world. USENET was a logical network, sitting on top
of several physical networks, among them UUCP, BLICN, BERKNET, X.25, and
the ARPANET. Sites on USENET included many universities, private companies
and research organizations. See USENET Archives.

		       SCO Files Lawsuit Against IBM

March 7, 2003 - The SCO Group filed legal action against IBM in the State 
Court of Utah for trade secrets misappropriation, tortious interference, 
unfair competition and breach of contract. The complaint alleges that IBM 
made concentrated efforts to improperly destroy the economic value of 
UNIX, particularly UNIX on Intel, to benefit IBM's Linux services 
business. See SCO vs IBM.

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